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Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. It also discusses technologies for learning that can assist with multiple aspects of teaching, assessment,and accommodations for learning. As discussed further in Chapter 3, it is well known that the knowledge and expertise of adult literacy instructors are highly variable (Smith and Gillespie, 2007; Tamassia et al., 2007). As a consequence, they may create a fuzzier or less complete representation of the text (Cohen, 1981; Hess, 1994; Light and Capps, 1986; Light et al., 1994; McGinnis, 2009; McGinnis et al., 2008; Noh et al., 2007). All rights reserved. Strategy instruction seems most effective when it incorporates ample opportunities for practice (Kamil et al., 2008; Pressley and Wharton-McDonald, 1997; Pressley et al., 1989a, 1989b). Explicit teaching does not negate the vital importance of incidental and informal learning opportunities or the need for extensive practice using new skills. targeting of maladaptive attributions and beliefs; and (5) differentiation of instruction to meet the particular needs of those who struggle or have diagnosed disabilities in the course of broader instruction to develop reading and writing skills. principles of instruction related to developing each of these components. Syntax constitutes the rules of language that specify how to combine different classes of words (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives) to form sentences. First, rich discussion about text may increase both literacy outcomes and understanding of content (Applebee et al., 2003). Types of text vary from books to medication instructions to Twitter tweets. One of these approaches, disciplinary literacy, seeks to make explicit the different reading and writing demands and conventions of the disciplinary domains, given that the disciplines use particular ways of reading and writing to solve real-world problems (Bain, 2000; Coffin, 2000; Hynd-Shanahan, Holschuh, and Hubbard, 2004; McConachie and Petrosky, 2010; Moje, 2007, 2008a; Shanahan and Shanahan, 2008; Wineburg, 1991, 1998). •  Struggling learners need enhanced support for the generalization and transfer of new literacy skills. Sentence complexity varies as a function of several factors, such as genre (Hunt, 1965; Scott, 1999; Scott and Windsor, 2000). They focus attention on new knowledge and skills related to the particular components of reading that the learner needs to develop. For example, the ability to recognize the meanings of words in a text appears to be intact (Burke and Peters, 1986; Burke, White, and Diaz, 1987; Light, Valencia-Laver, and Zavis, 1991). Struggling readers experience particular difficulties in acquiring self-regulatory strategies across a variety of literacy tasks (Levin, 1990; Pressley, 1991; Swanson, 1999; Swanson and Alexander, 1997; Swanson and Saez, 2003; Swanson and Siegel, 2001; Wong, 1991), and these difficulties are likely to affect the transfer and generalization failures observed among struggling learners (Harris, Graham, and Pressley, 1992; Meltzer, 1994). The new technologies, some of which are relatively unobtrusive, allow observing levels of brain activity associated with reading and writing components. On the one hand, being fully competent in a language but having no ability to recognize its written words will not allow successful reading comprehension. The essential role of cognitive processes and their direct impact on academic performance is supported by a growing body of evidence. One way to describe such knowledge is in terms of schemas–structures that represent our understandings (e.g., of events and their relationships). Developing readers often need help to develop the metacognitive components of reading comprehension, such as learning how to identify reading goals, select, implement, and coordinate multiple strategies; monitor and evaluate success of the strategies; and adjust strategies to achieve reading goals. •  Peer assistance in planning, drafting, and revising compositions. An important strength of adulthood is accumulated knowledge that often occurs as a consequence of literacy. Experiments. To encourage the practice needed for fluency, it is important to develop procedures and text types that will engage older developing readers. Overall, findings suggest a range of vocabulary activities that may be useful in adult literacy instruction, but, at present, research on adults is extremely limited. On the other hand, neither will having the ability to recognize the written words of a language but not having the ability to understand their meaning. Understanding of text improves if readers are asked to state reading goals, predictions, questions, and reactions to the material that is read (Kamil et al., 2008; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000a; Palincsar and Brown, 1984). It is important to note that most of the evidence-based writing practices suggest the importance of considerable time devoted to writing and the need to practice writing for different purposes. It is possible that more explicit training and scaffolding would support generalization, as might more practice opportunities. Self-efficacy is especially important to the social-cognitive model of writing proposed by Zimmerman and Reisemberg (1997; Zimmerman, 1989), which specifies that writing is a goal-driven, self-initiated, and self-sustained activity that involves both cognition and affect. This principle is based on solid evidence (but often from studies of young students) that effective intervention for literacy learning problems directly targets specific difficulties in literacy skills (Fletcher et al., 2007; Foorman et al., 1998; Lovett, Barron, and Benson, 2003; Morris et al., 2010; Swanson, Harris, and Graham, 2003; Torgesen et al., 1999). Lervåg A(1), Bråten I, Hulme C. Author information: (1)Institute for Educational Research, University of Oslo, Norway. Knowing how the everyday world works, both in terms of content and procedures, is a crucial component of language comprehension. Much of the research has focused on identifying the neurocircuits (brain pathways) associated with component processes in reading and writing at different stages of typical reading development, and differences in the progression of brain organization for these processes in atypically developing readers. Linguistic and Cognitive Foundations of Writing. 1Other documents have summarized research on the components of reading and writing and instructional practices to develop literacy skills. Incorporation of attributional retraining (Berkeley et al., 2011; Borkowski, Weyhing, and Carr, 1988; Schunk and Rice, 1992) and training to improve metacognitive processes (Malone and Mastropieri, 1992) also appear to enhance the effectiveness of strategy instruction. Although these descriptions are listed separately, individuals can experience deficits in multiple areas. From the cognitive perspective of learning to read, reading comprehension (or, simply, reading) is the ability to construct linguistic meaning from written representations of language. To be effective, teachers of struggling readers and writers must have significant expertise in both the components of reading and writing, which include spoken language, and how to teach them. It will be especially valuable to understand how neurocircuits involved in reading and writing become organized, why they fail to organize properly in individuals with reading problems, how they are modified by experiential factors that include instruction and intervention, and why they do not develop as expeditiously with learning and practice in some subpopulations. DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFICULTIES. Both reading-to-learn and writing-to-learn are meaning-making activities that result in understanding—a central goal of content-based instruction. •  Combine explicit and systematic instruction with extended reading practice to promote acquisition and transfer of component reading skills. In addition, some limited evidence with elementary school students experiencing difficulties with regulating attention shows that teaching ways to monitor attention while writing improves writing skills and increases the amount of text written (Harris et al., 1994; Rumsey and Ballard, 1985). Learning to read involves both explicit teaching and implicit learning. A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School This study was conducted by members of a site of the California Writing Project in partnership with a large, urban, low-SES school district where 93% of … In addition, because different disciplines study different aspects of literacy, much remains to be discovered about how various social, cultural, and instructional factors interact with neurocognitive processes to facilitate or constrain the development of literacy skills. Research on neurocircuits that support reading beyond the word level is beginning to focus on how neurocircuits organize as readers cope with syntactic, pragmatic, and cognitive processing demands associated with sentence and text reading and comprehension (Caplan, 2004; Cooke et al., 2006; Cutting and Scarborough, 2006; Ferstl et al., 2008; Kuperberg et al., 2008; Shankweiler et al., 2008). Although some studies have focused specifically on enhancing motivation to write with positive results (Hidi, Berndorff, and Ainley, 2002; Miller and Meece, 1997; Schunk and Swartz, 1993a, 1993b), the evidence base related to motivation and instruction stems mainly from a few ethnographic, qualitative, and quasi-experimental studies. On the other side of the coin, children who do have problems with reading comprehension always have problems with either the ability to understand language or the ability to decode written words (or both; see sidebar). It will be important to extend the research to reading beyond the word level and to writing. Adults who lack reading comprehension skills developed through years of accumulated experience with reading especially might benefit from explicit instruction to develop awareness of text components that often happens implicitly. In E.Z. Some methods of fluency improvement have been vali-. Phonemes are represented in writing language by letters, learning to read requires that children become consciously aware of the phonemes as individual elements of words. This approach involves reading new texts that develop vocabulary, topic, and domain knowledge. MacArthur and Lembo (2009) also found this to be a productive strategy with adult literacy learners. a.o.lervag@ped.uio.no As in younger readers, eventual automatic recognition of newly learned words occurs through adulthood (Lien et al., 2006). dated in children (e.g., guided repeated reading); these require further research with adolescents and adults. Teach regularity and irregularity of spelling-to-sound mappings, the patterns of English morphology, rules of grammar and syntax, and the structures of various text genres. If you have a well-developed schema in a particular domain of knowledge, then understanding a conversation relevant to that domain is much easier because you already have a meaningful structure in place for interpreting the conversation. researchers have identified as core deficits in specific lower level sensory or motor processes (visual, auditory, cerebellar) believed to underlie the academic learning problems (see, e.g., Lovegrove, Martin, and Slaghuis, 1986; Nicolson, Fawcett, and Dean, 2001; Stein, 2001; Tallal, 1980, 2004). A small body of evidence shows that efforts to increase developing and struggling writers’ knowledge about writing, especially knowledge of text structure, improve the writing performance of school-age students (Fitzgerald and Markham, 1987; Fitzgerald and Teasley, 1986; Holliway and McCutchen, 2004) and college students (Traxler and Gernsbacher, 1993; Wallace et al., 1996). Adult learners will have encountered many texts during the course of formal schooling that are poorly written or highly complex (Beck, McKeown, and Gromoll, 1989; Chambliss and Calfee, 1998; Chambliss and Murphy, 2002; Lee and Spratley, 2010). When these skills are not automatized, as is the case for many developing and struggling writers, cognitive resources are not available for other important aspects of writing, such as planning, evaluating, and revising (McCutchen, 2006). Reading is defined as a cognitive process that involves decoding symbols to arrive at meaning. Reading comprehension involves a high level of metacognitive engagement with text. Skilled writers can deftly produce a variety of different types of sentences for effective communication. For example, when children with reading disabilities have received strategy instruction, some appear to remain novices relative to their more able peers because they fail to transform simple strategies into more efficient forms (Swanson, Hoskyn, and Lee, 1999; Zimmerman, 2000a, 2000b). Goals are important because they prompt marshaling the resources, effort, and persistence needed for proficient writing (Locke et al., 1981). Research Evidence. Because different disciplines study different aspects of literacy, research has yet to systemati-. Notably, the process-writing approach, which does not systematically target specific difficulties (Graves, 1983), has not been effective with strug-. As with research on word reading, recent studies contrasting skilled and less skilled “comprehenders” reveal anomalies across these extended LH networks (Keller, Carpenter, and Just, 2001; Rimrodt et al., 2010). With practice, however, strategic processes for remembering, interpreting, and integrating information become less effortful. The knowledge behind this ability must be explicit, not implicit. It is something that in most cases must be taught in order to be learned. Such information distracts the unskilled reader. Differences in findings across studies may be due partly to variations in the approaches and how they were implemented, the lack of direct measures of vocabulary growth in some studies, and the use of measures that fail to assess all dimensions of word knowledge or reading comprehension. There is a dearth of experimental evidence on how to build adaptive attributions and motivations for struggling adult readers and writers during the course of intervention, although research with children and adolescents with reading disabilities is emerging (Guthrie et al., 2009; Lovett, Lacerenza, and Borden, 2000; Morris et al., 2010; Wigfield et al., 2008; Wolf, Miller, and Donnelly, 2000). Effective comprehension requires understanding all of the strategies, when and why to select particular strategies, how to monitor their success, and how to adjust strategies as needed to achieve the reading goal (Mason, 2004; Sinatra, Brown, and Reynolds, 2002; Vaughn, Klinger, and Hughes, 2000). That is, they plan activities using clear objectives with deep understanding of reading and writing processes. Reading is an active process of constructing meanings of words. Reading fluency is the ability to read with speed and accuracy (Klauda and Guthrie, 2008; Kuhn and Stahl, 2003; Miller and Schwanenflugel, 2006). It is also important to learn how structural or functional factors constrain the basic computational skills on which learning to read depends (memory capacity, consolidation, speed of processing) (Just and Varma, 2007). edge expands and becomes better integrated, learners begin to use strategies more efficiently and flexibly. Concentration also must be sustained so that memories of previous sentences and pages do not fade before the next text is read, and this is less possible when a decoding problem diverts attention from prior content. Thus caution must be applied in generalizing the findings to populations of adults who need to develop literacy skills later in life. It is a complex skill that involves many human capacities that evolved for other purposes and it depends on their development and coordinated use: spoken language, perception (vision, hearing), motor systems, memory, learning, reasoning, problem solving, motivation, interest, and others (Rayner et al., 2001). Recent work on school subject learning also makes it clear that content and uses of language differ significantly from one subject matter to another (Coffin and Hewings, 2004; Lee and Spratley, 2006; McConachie and Petrosky, 2010). Literacy, or cognition of any kind, cannot be understood fully apart from the contexts in which it develops (e.g., Cobb and Bowers, 1999; Greeno, Smith, and Moore, 1993; Heath, 1983; Lave and Wenger, 1991; Markus and Kitiyama, 2010; Nisbett, 2003; Rogoff and Lave, 1984; Scribner and Cole, 1981; Street, 1984). The past 25 years have seen further progress in modeling the cognitive foundations of reading, writing, and other intellectual skills, and even greater progress in building socially as well as cognitively sophisticated models of instruction. Learners, especially adolescents, are more engaged when literacy instruction and practice opportunities are embedded in meaningful learning activities. The findings need. For example, children and adolescents spend very little time planning and revising, whereas more accomplished writers, such as college students, spend about 50 percent of writing time planning and revising text (Graham, 2006b; Kellogg, 1987, 1993a). •  Analyzing models of good writing (discussing the features of good essays and learning to imitate those features). Effective word attack strategies for all readers include phonological decoding and blending, word identification by analogy, peeling off prefixes and suffixes, and facility with variable vowel pronunciations (for information about these word-reading strategies and how to use them, see Lovett et al., 1994, 2000; Lovett, Lacerenza, and Borden, 2000). Specific difficulties in these domains include maladaptive attributions about effort and achievement, learned helplessness rather than mastery-oriented motivational profiles, immature and poorly developed epistemic beliefs, and disengagement from reading and writing activities. Thus, it is important that writers learn to execute these skills fluently and automatically with little or no thought (Alexander, Graham, and Harris, 1998). A number of principles for writing instruction are supported by research (see Box 2-4), although the body of research is smaller than for reading. In general, skilled writers possess a more sophisticated conceptualization of writing than less skilled writers (Graham, Schwartz, and MacArthur, 1993). Beyond the systematic relationships captured in cipher knowledge are the exceptions–those instances where the relationships between the units of the spoken and written word are unique and do not follow a systematic pattern. Brain imaging studies (both structural and functional imaging) have revealed, however, robust differences in brain organization between typically and atypically developing readers (see Chapter 7). When word and sentence reading becomes automatic, readers can concentrate more fully on creating meaning from the text (Graesser, 2007; Perfetti, 2007; Rapp et al., 2007; van den Broek et al., 2009). Common to almost all effective interventions is that they targeted specific areas of processing as part of teaching and practicing the act of writing, instead of trying to remediate processing problems in isolation. Foundations for Learning to Read 1. We can go beyond the literal interpretation allowed by competence in the language, to inferences from language that are built in combination with our knowledge of the world. Literacy development, like the learning of any complex task, requires a range of explicit teaching and implicit learning guided by an expert (Ford and Forman, 2006; Forman, Minick, and Stone, 1993; Lave and Wenger, 1991, 1998; Rogoff, 1990, 1993, 1995; Scribner and Cole, 1981; Street, 1984; Vygotsky, 1986; Wertsch, 1991). The cognitive processes involved in the stages of comprehension (prereading, guided reading, and postreading) are virtually the same as the cognitive processes involved in the three inquiry stages that promote effective composition. Vocabulary knowledge is a primary predictor of reading success (Baumann, Kame’enui, and Ash, 2003). By contrast, for both children and adults with reading disabilities (RD), there are marked functional differences, relative to typically developing readers, in language processing (see Pugh et al., 2010, for reviews) with reduced activation and connectivity at both TP and OT sites. MECHANISMS OF LITERACY DEVELOPMENT. Such research will be invaluable for understanding how learning to read and write differs at different ages. support to stretch beyond existing skills. Extensive research has been conducted on youths’ multimodal and digital literacy learning, demonstrating that young people are experimenting with a range of tools and practices that extend beyond those taught in school (see Coiro et al., 2009a, 2009b). Reading comprehension can become compromised in several respects with age. •  Structure instructional environments and interactions to motivate writing practice and persistence in learning new forms of writing. And both of these are necessary for successful word recognition. Early findings on the brain pathways (neurocircuits) for reading and reading disorders came primarily from studies of acquired dyslexia associated with brain injury (Damasio and Damasio, 1983; Dejerine, 1891; Geschwind, 1965; Warrington and Shallice, 1980) or postmortem histological studies of individuals with a history of reading disability (Galaburda, 2005; Galaburda et al., 2006). For those developing or struggling writers who need to develop spelling, handwriting, or keyboarding skills, instruction in these areas improves these skills and enhances other aspects of writing performance (Berninger et al., 1998; Christensen, 2005; Graham, Harris, and Fink, 2000; Graham, Harris, and Fink-Chorzempa, 2002). It is likely that selecting texts that are compatible with learning goals will result in more persistence at deep understanding. Reading and writing involve many shared components and processes. Knowledge enables, for example, understanding relations among concepts not obvious to the novice, understanding vocabulary and jargon, abstract reasoning (e.g., analogy), making inferences and connections in the text, and monitoring the success of efforts made to comprehend. When the connections between reading and writing are made explicit during instruction, a more integrated system of literacy skills develops and learning is facilitated. with young children show that fluency instruction can lead to significant gains in both fluency and comprehension (Chard, Vaughn, and Tyler, 2002; Klauda and Guthrie, 2008; Kuhn and Stahl, 2003; Therrien, 2004; Therrien and Hughes, 2008). Such approaches warrant study with those outside K-12 because adolescents and adults may need to develop academic or other specialized vocabulary and content knowledge for education, work, or other purposes. NOTE: The practices are listed in descending order by effect size. View our suggested citation for this chapter. For example, some will require comprehensive decoding instruction; others may need less or no decoding instruction. 75-93. The likelihood of transferring a newly learned skill to a new task depends on the similarity between the new task and tasks used for learning (National Research Council, 2005), making it important to design literacy instruction using the literacy activities, tools, and tasks that are valued by society and learners outside the context of instruction. ( Lien et al., 2003 ): Concentration handwriting ) is through success at both comprehension., background knowledge represents the rules for how language operates, background knowledge the. Includes vocabulary understanding as well as with reading disabilities is necessary for successful word recognition informal. And contextual forces interact with neurocognitive processes to facilitate comprehension and decoding abilities to read and write at... 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